SIMULATING EMPIRICALLY-DETERMINED PLUG LOADS TO IMPROVE KNOWLEDGE OF DESIGN LOADS AND ASSESS BUILDING PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT OPPORTUNITIES
The accurate prediction of internal heat gains from
occupants, lighting, and plug loads inside a building is
critical for mechanical engineers and energy modelers,
with implications related to HVAC sizing, thermal
comfort requirements, and energy efficiency. However,
internal gain values are often misjudged, stemming from
industry standard assumptions. This paper describes an
empirical approach to calculate plug load density in
office spaces, and the subsequent simulation of an active
office building incorporating different internal gains
assumptions. The outcome is a 24-hour plug load
schedule in the form of W/ft² that assists in predicting
peak heating and cooling loads. The model underwent
six iterations: five with a variety of plug load densities
based on current design handbooks, and the last with
improved values determined by this procedure. The
simulation results are compared to reveal the impact of
renewed plug load estimates on HVAC demand and
ASHRAE. 2013. 2013 ASHRAE HandbookFundamentals, Pages 18.5, 18.12. Atlanta, Georgia.
ASHRAE. 2013. ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013, Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise
Residential Buildings, Appendix G. Atlanta, Georgia.
ASHRAE. 2013. RTS Cooling Load Calculations Example Spreadsheet (revised 2009). Atlanta, Georgia
Department of Energy. 2012. New Construction Commerical Reference Buildings. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. Washington, DC.
Duška, Michal and Jan Lukeš, Martin Barták, František Drkal and Jan Hensen. 2007. Trends in Heat Gains from Office Equipment. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Indoor Climate of Buildings. Prague, Czech Republic.
Gowri, K., Winiarski, D., and Jarnagin, R. 2009. Infiltration Modeling Guidelines for Commercial Building Energy Analysis. U.S. Department of Energy and Pacific Northwest Laboratory.
Hosni, Mohammad, Byron W. Jones, and Hanming Xu. 1999. RP-1055- Experimental Results for Heat Gain and Radiant/Convective Split From Equipment in Buildings. Proceedings from the 1999 ASHRAE Annual Conference. Seattle, Washington.
Wilcox, S. and W. Marion. 2008. User's Manual for TMY3 Data Sets, NREL/TP-581-43156. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Golden, Colorado.
Wilkins, Christopher K. and Mohommad H. Hosni. 2011. Plug Load Design Factors. ASHRAE Journal, May 2011, Pages 30-34.
- There are currently no refbacks.